Patrick Mueller elsewhere:,

Wednesday, May 23, 2007

audio vs video

The Redmonkers have been starting to web publish video interviews along with their usual audio interviews. Coté seems to be doing most (all?) of the work, and you can catch these as he releases them on his blog.

I like to see people experimenting with new technology, and 'upgrading' from audio to video sounds like a fun experiment (pardon the pun). But it doesn't work for me.

My issues:

  • There really isn't that much 'extra' in a video interview, over just the audio. You get to see faces. You get to see some body language. Maybe a picture or two.

  • The idea of watching an interview means I have to have two senses trained on the media: eyes and ears. You're killing my continuous partial attention!

  • I can't listen to it on my video-challenged iPod.

  • The reason I don't have a video-capable iPod is that the situations in which I listen to my iPod don't lend themselves to allowing me to watch something on the device as well: driving, mowing the lawn, washing the dishes, etc.

I fully admit to being an old fuddy-duddy; even Rush Limbaugh does video of his show. Good luck guys, and, if you can, also make the audio portion of your videos available as an MP3. I'm not alone in this wish.

But let me change the direction here. Let's look at an environment that is high on video interaction, and absolutely bereft of audio interaction. Your programming environment. Your IDE, be it Eclipse, NetBeans, IntelliJ, Visual Studio, XCode, Emacs, or a text editor and a command-line. How many of these programs use audio to help you develop code? None. Well, I might be lying, I'm not familiar with all of these environments, but I don't recall any of these environments making use of audio like they do visuals.

When we're programming on all cylinders, we're in 'the zone'. Continuous full attention. Eyes reading and scanning, fingers typing and clicking and moving mice. Where's the audio? It ain't there.

Nathan Harrington has a number of articles up at developerWorks, such as "Monitor your Linux computer with machine-generated music" which discuss ways developers can use audio in their computing environment.

This is good stuff, and we need more of it.

I would be remiss in not pointing out here that audio feedback like this is only useful to those of us lucky enough to have decent audio hardware and software in our heads. Those of us without such luck wouldn't be able to take advantage of audio feedback. On the other hand, folks who lack decent video hardware and software in their heads would most likely appreciate more emphasis on a sense they are more dependant on.

The most obvious use case for audio in a development environment is with debugging. There are a lot of cases while debugging when you just want to know if you hit a certain point in your program. The typical way you'd do this is to set a breakpoint, and when the location is hit, the debugger stops, you see where you are, and hit continue. Breaking your attention and demanding your input. What if, instead, you could set an audio breakpoint, that would play a sound when the location was hit? So your attention wasn't broken. And you didn't have to press the Continue button to proceed.

With regard to audio debugging, I know this has been experimented with many times in the past. I've done it as well, a decade ago, when I was using a programming environment that I was able to easily reprogram: Smalltalk.

But audio usage in development environments is not yet mainstream. There's lots of research to be done here:

  • What are the best sound palettes to use: audio clips, midi tones, short midi sequences, percussion vs tones?

  • How should we take advantage of other audio aspects like volume and pitch and three dimensional positioning, especially regarding continuously changing quantities like memory or i/o usage by an application?

  • How do we deal with 'focus' if I'm also listening to Radio Paradise while I'm working?

  • Does text-to-speech make sense in some cases?

  • How do we arrange multiple audio feedback to be presented to us in a way that's not unpleasing to listen to? Not just a cacophony of random sounds.

  • Beyond debugging, where else can we make use of audio feedback?

  • How might audio be integrated into diagnostic tools like DTrace?

Monday, May 21, 2007

ETags are not a panacea

panacea: A remedy for all diseases, evils, or difficulties; a cure-all.

In my post "That Darned Cat! - 1", I complained about Twitter performance, and peeked at some of their HTTP headers noticing they didn't seem to respect ETags or Last-Modified header cache validator tests.

Since posting, Twitter performance is back on track. I haven't checked, but I'm guessing they didn't add ETag support. :-)

A number of people seemed to read into my post that ETags are a cause of Twitter's performance problems. I'd be the first to admit that such a proposition is a bit of a stretch. ETags are no panacea, and in fact you'll obviously have to write more code to handle them correctly. Harder even, if you're using some kind of high level framework for your app. This isn't easy stuff.

And in general, my 20+ years of programming have taught me that your first guess at where your performance problems in your code are, is dead wrong. You really need to break out some diagnostic tools, or write some, to figure out where your problems are. Since I don't have the Twitter code, I'm of course at a complete loss to guess where their problems are, when they have them.

ETags and Last-Modified processing is something you ought to do, if you can afford it, because it does allow for some optimization in your client / server transactions. To be clear, the optimization is that the server doesn't have to send the content it would have sent to the client, as the client has indicated it already has that 'version' of it cached. There is still a round-trip to the server involved. If you're looking for an absolute killer optimization though, you should be looking at Expires and Cache-Control headers. See Mark Nottingham's recent post "Expires vs. max-age" for some additional information, along with the link to his caching tutorial.

Expires and friends are killer, because they allow the ultimate in client / server transaction optimization; the transaction is optimized away completely. The client can check the expiration data, and determine that the data they have cached has not 'expired', and thus they don't need to ask the server for it at all. Unfortunately, many applications won't be able to use these headers, if their data is designed to change rapidly; eg, Twitter.

Sam Ruby also blogged about another great example of Expires headers. How often does the Google maps image data really change?

Here's another great example, applicable to our new web 2.0-ey future. Yahoo! is hosting their YUI library for any application to use directly, without copying the toolkit to their own web site. Let's peek at the headers from one of their files:

$ curl -I
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Last-Modified: Wed, 18 Apr 2007 17:35:45 GMT
X-Yahoo-Compressed: true
Content-Type: text/css
Cache-Control: max-age=313977290
Expires: Tue, 02 May 2017 04:08:44 GMT
Date: Mon, 21 May 2007 04:13:54 GMT
Connection: keep-alive

Good stuff! The Expires and Cache-Control headers render this file pretty much immutable, as it should be. When Yahoo! releases the next version of the toolkit, it'll be hosted at a different url base, and so will be unaffected by the headers of this particular file; they will be different urls. This sort of behaviour is highly optimal for web 2.0-ey apps, which are wont to download a lot of static html, css and javascript files, which, for some particular version of the app, will never change. And thus, by having the files cached on the client in such a way that it never asks the server for them again, the app will come up all the quicker.

Good stuff to know, and take advantage of if you can.

For more specific information about our essential protocol, HTTP 1.1, see RFC 2616. It's available in multiple formats, here:

Sunday, May 20, 2007

blogging process

In "Lesson learned", my colleague Robert Berry recounts 'losing' a blog post he was editing. Not the first time I've heard this recently. I thought I'd document my process of creating blog posts, in case it's of any use to anyone. Because I don't lose blog posts.

My secret: I use files.

Although many blogging systems let you edit your blog posts 'online', and even let you save them as drafts, I don't actually go into my blogging system to enter a blog post, until it's complete. The process is:

  • Create a new blog entry by going into the Documents/blog-posts folder in my home directory of my primary computer, and creating a new file, the name of which will be the title of the blog post. The 'extension' of the file is .html.

  • Edit the blog post in html, in a plain old text editor.

  • While editing, at some point, double click on the file in my file system browser (Explorer, PathFinder, Nautilus, etc) to preview it in a web browser.

  • Churn on the edit / proof-read-in-a-web-browser cycle, for hours or days.

  • Ready to post? First, check all links.

  • Surf over to blog editing site, enter the body of the post into the text editor via the clipboard, set the title, categories / links, etc.

  • Preview the post on the blog editing site. Press the "Publish" button.

  • Move the file with the blog post from Documents/blog-posts to Documents/blog-posts/posted .

HTML TextAreas are an extremely poor replacement for a decent text editor. Using HTML is handy, since some (most?) blogging systems will accept it as input, and you can preview it yourself with your favorite web browser. Saving the files, even after finished posting, is a convenient backup mechanism, should you ever lose your entire blog.

Besides these obvious advantages, I noticed some behaviours of other blogging systems that I really didn't like, when saving drafts of posts 'online':

  • On one system I used, the title saved with the first draft was used as the slug of the blog URL. Even if I later changed the title, the slug remained some abbreviated version of the first saved title. Ick.

  • On one system I used, tags I saved with a post ended up showing up in the global list of tags on the blog. Even if there weren't any published posts that had used that tag. Ick.

I should note that I also have a directory Documents/blog-posts/unused for posts which I've started, and decided not to post. The "island of misfit blog posts", as it were, but "unused" was shorter.

There you have it! Since you religiously backup files on your primary computer you'll have no concern about ever losing a blog post again!